Database Management Basics

Database management is a method for managing the data that supports a business's operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and applications making changes as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged by unexpected failure. It is a component of the entire informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve huge amounts of data for a variety of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, known as attributes, that contain information about the data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most well-known database type in the present. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data because it does not require changing various databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level determines how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the different data models) and can also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.